Statistical analysis enables the analyst, to determine, with a pre-determined degree of confidence, (here claimed to be at least 95% ) the degree of variations which are due to chance and to known and unknown influences. Theoretically, if the calculated Chi^2 test value could have occurred only by chance, with a probability LESS than that selected, then the set of data would be considered as being DIFFERENT.When applying statistical tests, caution should be observed with data suspected of appreciably differing from a normal distribution. In practice : Any Chi^2 test value LARGER than 5.99, excludes the claimed 95 % confidence.“The formation of Egypt was unique in the ancient world.It was a territorial state; a state from which the moment it formed had established borders over a territory in much the same way we think of nations today,” Dee explained.The radioactive carbon has six protons and eight neutrons in its nucleus, giving it a total atomic mass of 14.This atom is not stable, and will break down, releasing nuclear energy in the process.What did surprise me was the huge number of Web sites and books vigorously attacking the legitimacy of what I had thought was a fairly straightforward, uncontroversial test.Apparently carbon dating is right up there with evolution in terms of the disdain it evokes from certain religious groups.
For non-mathematical minds, all calculations are worked out completely.As is often the case, the controversy over this topic is at least as interesting as the topic itself.Carbon Copies Carbon dating begins, logically enough, with carbon.Though widely acknowledged as the oldest state that fits our modern concept of a unified nation, the actual age of the ancient nation of Egypt remains uncertain.Radiocarbon dating of artifacts from Egypt’s Pre-dynastic period and First Dynasty, reported September 4th in the Proceedings of the Royal Society A by Michael Dee and colleagues, suggests Egypt is younger than previously thought.“Trying to understand what happened in human history to lead people to establish this sort of polity we felt was a gap in understanding that needed to be filled.”1 Before the mid-twentieth century, Egyptologists came up with dates for Egyptian unification ranging from 5500 BC to 2000 BC.Since then, the average date assigned has been around 3100 BC.2 Dee’s study fits with this trend.First I reworked the data given in Tables 1 & 2, using the classical statistical analyzing method, based on the "Central Limit Theorem." I used the method given in "Perry's Chemical Engineer's Handbook", my technical bible for many years.Note that I only verify the assessment of the radiocarbon dating results, NOT the conversion into calendar ages. BASIS OF RADIOCARBON DATING Radiocarbon dating compares the amount of normal carbon with the amount of radioactive carbon in a sample. What effect would the declining strength of the earth's magnetic field and a catastrophic worldwide flood have on radiocarbon dates?